Authors: Linlin Fei, Jingyu Du, Kai H. Luo, Sauro Succi, Marco Lauricella, Andrea Montessori, Qian Wang
Journal: Physics of Fluids, 2019, 31.4: 042105.
Abstract: In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) based on a set of non-orthogonal basis vectors. Compared with the classical MRT-LBM based on a set of orthogonal basis vectors, the present non-orthogonal MRT-LBM simplifies the transformation between the discrete velocity space and the moment space and exhibits better portability across different lattices. The proposed method is then extended to multiphase flows at large density ratio with tunable surface tension, and its numerical stability and accuracy are well demonstrated by some benchmark cases. Using the proposed method, a practical case of a fuel droplet impacting on a dry surface at high Reynolds and Weber numbers is simulated and the evolution of the spreading film diameter agrees well with the experimental data. Furthermore, another realistic case of a droplet impacting on a super-hydrophobic wall with a cylindrical obstacle is reproduced, which confirms the experimental finding of Liu et al. [“Symmetry breaking in drop bouncing on curved surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 10034 (2015)] that the contact time is minimized when the cylinder radius is comparable with the droplet radius.